Yazeed Postharvest Technology

Production Practices

Production practices have a tremendous effect on the quality of fruits and vegetables at harvest and on postharvest quality and shelf life. To start with, it is well known that some cultivars ship better and have a longer shelf life than others. In addition, environmental factors such as soil type, temperature, frost, and rainy weather at harvest can have an adverse effect on storage life and quality. For example, carrots grown on muck soils do not hold up as well in storage as carrots grown on lighter, upland soils. Lettuce harvested during a period of rain does not ship well and product losses are increased. 

Management practices can also affect postharvest quality. Produce that has been stressed by too much or too little water, high rates of nitrogen, or mechanical injury (scrapes, bruises, abrasions) is particularly susceptible to postharvest diseases. Mold and decay on winter squash, caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia, result from the fruits lying on the ground, and can be alleviated by using mulch. Broccoli heads are susceptible to postharvest rot caused by the bacteria Erwinia if nitrogen is applied as foliar feed—a grower should feed the soil, not the leaves. Beets and radishes are susceptible to soil-borne diseases when the soil temperature reaches 80º F; symptoms are black spots on these root crops. 

Food safety also begins in the field, and should be of special concern, since a number of outbreaks of foodborne illnesses have been traced to contamination of produce in the field. Common-sense prevention measures include a number of don'ts: 

  • Don't apply raw dairy or chicken manure or slurries to a field where a vegetable crop such as leafy lettuce is growing.
  • Don't apply manure to an area immediately adjacent to a field nearing harvest maturity.
  • Don't forget to clean equipment that has been used to apply manure to one field before moving it to another field in production.
  • Don't irrigate with water from a farm pond used by livestock.
  • Don't harvest fruit from the orchard floor for human consumption as whole fruit or nonpasteurized juices, especially if manure has been spread or animals allowed to graze.
  • Don't accumulate harvested product in areas where birds roost.

A grower should constantly evaluate water used for irrigation, and compost all animal manures before applying them to fields. There are many good sources of information on growing conditions and production practices that promote postharvest quality. Consult textbooks, Extension publications, and trade journals, and become involved with grower organizations to find out more.

Harvest Handling

Quality cannot be improved after harvest, only maintained; therefore it is important to harvest fruits, vegetables, and flowers at the proper stage and size and at peak quality. Immature or overmature produce may not last as long in storage as that picked at proper maturity. (4) Cooperative Extension Service publications are an excellent source of information on harvest maturity indicators for vegetables and fruits.

Harvest should be completed during the coolest time of the day, which is usually in the early morning, and produce should be kept shaded in the field. Handle produce gently. Crops destined for storage should be as free as possible from skin breaks, bruises, spots, rots, decay, and other deterioration. Bruises and other mechanical damage not only affect appearance, but provide entrance to decay organisms as well.

Postharvest rots are more prevalent in fruits and vegetables that are bruised or otherwise damaged. Mechanical damage also increases moisture loss. The rate of moisture loss may be increased by as much as 400 percent by a single bad bruise on an apple, and skinned potatoes may lose three to four times as much weight as non-skinned potatoes. Damage can be prevented by training harvest labor to handle the crop gently; harvesting at proper maturity; harvesting dry whenever possible; handling each fruit or vegetable no more than necessary (field pack if possible); installing padding inside bulk bins; and avoiding over- or under-packing of containers. 

Postharvest and Storage Considerations


Packaging should be designed to prevent physical damage to produce, and be easy to handle. The American Vegetable Grower magazine's annual product guide is a good source of information about suppliers.


Temperature is the single most important factor in maintaining quality after harvest. Refrigerated storage retards the following elements of deterioration in perishable crops:

  • aging due to ripening, softening, and textural and color changes;
  • undesirable metabolic changes and respiratory heat production;
  • moisture loss and the wilting that results;
  • spoilage due to invasion by bacteria, fungi, and yeasts;
  • undesirable growth, such as sprouting of potatoes.

One of the most important functions of refrigeration is to control the crop's respiration rate. Respiration generates heat as sugars, fats, and proteins in the cells of the crop are oxidized. The loss of these stored food reserves through respiration means decreased food value, loss of flavor, loss of salable weight, and more rapid deterioration. The respiration rate of a product strongly determines its transit and postharvest life. The higher the storage temperature, the higher the respiration rate will be. 

For refrigeration to be effective in postponing deterioration, it is important that the temperature in cold storage rooms be kept as constant as possible.charts the optimum temperature ranges for various crops. Exposure to alternating cold and warm temperatures may result in moisture accumulation on the surface of produce (sweating), which may hasten decay. Storage rooms should be well insulated and adequately refrigerated, and should allow for air circulation to prevent temperature variation. Be sure that thermometers, thermostats, and manual temperature controls are of high quality, and check them periodically for accuracy.

On-farm cooling facilities are a valuable asset for any produce operation. A grower who can cool and store produce has greater market flexibility because the need to market immediately after harvest is eliminated. The challenge, especially for small-scale producers, is the set-up cost. Innovative farmers and researchers have created a number of designs for low-cost structures. 


Pre-cooling is the first step in good temperature management. The field heat of a freshly harvested crop—heat the product holds from the sun and ambient temperature—is usually high, and should be removed as quickly as possible before shipping, processing, or storage. Refrigerated trucks are not designed to cool fresh commodities but only maintain the temperature of pre-cooled produce. Likewise, most refrigerated storage rooms have neither the refrigeration capacity nor the air movement needed for rapid cooling. Therefore, pre-cooling is generally a separate operation requiring special equipment and/or rooms. 

Rapid pre-cooling to the product's lowest safe temperature is most critical for crops with inherently high respiration rates. These include artichokes, brussels sprouts, cut flowers, green onions, snap beans, asparagus, broccoli, mushrooms, peas, and sweet corn. Crops with low respiration rates include nuts, apples, grapes, garlic, onions, potatoes (mature), and sweet potatoes.

 The following methods are the most commonly used:

  • Room cooling: Produce is placed in an insulated room equipped with refrigeration units. This method can be used with most commodities, but is slow compared with other options. A room used only to store previously cooled produce requires a relatively small refrigeration unit. However, if it is used to cool produce, a larger unit is needed. Containers should be stacked so that cold air can move around them, and constructed so that it can move through them. Used refrigerated truck bodies make excellent small cooling rooms. 
  • Forced-air cooling: Fans are used in conjunction with a cooling room to pull cool air through packages of produce. Although the cooling rate depends on the air temperature and the rate of air flow, this method is usually 75–90 percent faster than room cooling. Fans should be equipped with a thermostat that automatically shuts them off as soon as the desired product temperature is reached.
  • Hydro-cooling: Dumping produce into cold water, or running cold water over produce, is an efficient way to remove heat, and can serve as a means of cleaning at the same time. In addition, hydro-cooling reduces water loss and wilting. Use of a disinfectant in the water is recommended to reduce the spread of diseases. Hydro-cooling is not appropriate for berries, potatoes to be stored, sweet potatoes, bulb onions, garlic, or other commodities that cannot tolerate wetting.

    To avoid over-cooling and dehydration of produce, do not operate forced-air fans after the produce has been cooled to its optimum temperature.

Water removes heat about five times faster than air, but is less energy-efficient. Well water is a good option, as it usually comes out of the ground with temperatures in the 50–60º F range. Mechanical refrigeration is the most efficient method for cooling water. A thermal storage immersion hydro-cooler system can be fabricated economically to suit various volume requirements. Used stainless-steel bulk farm milk coolers may be an option. If hydro-cooling water is recirculated, it should be chlorinated to minimize disease problems.

A study compared sweet corn quality after hydro-cooling with ice water, well water cooling, and refrigerated air cooling, and subsequent refrigerated storage. Hydro-cooling with ice water lowered the temperature of the ears most quickly. Well water cooling followed by refrigerated storage appeared to offer no advantage over refrigerated storage immediately after harvest.

  • Top or liquid icing: Icing is particularly effective on dense products and palletized packages that are difficult to cool with forced air. In top icing, crushed ice is added to the container over the top of the produce by hand or machine. For liquid icing, a slurry of water and ice is injected into produce packages through vents or handholds without removing the packages from pallets and opening their tops. Icing methods work well with high-respiration commodities such as sweet corn and broccoli. One pound of ice will cool about three pounds of produce from 85º F to 40º F. 
  • Vacuum cooling: Produce is enclosed in a chamber in which a vacuum is created. As the vacuum pressure increases, water within the plant evaporates and removes heat from the tissues. This system works best for leafy crops, such as lettuce, which have a high surface-to-volume ratio. To reduce water loss, water is sometimes sprayed on the produce prior to placing it in the chamber. This process is called hydrovac cooling. The primary drawback to this method is the cost of the vacuum chamber system

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